By Larry Lankton
Spanning the years 1840-1875, past the bounds specializes in the cost of higher Michigan's Keweenaw Peninsula, telling the tale of reluctant pioneers who tried to set up a good degree of convenience, keep watch over, and safeguard in what used to be in lots of methods a opposed setting. relocating past the technological heritage of the interval present in his past e-book Cradle to the Grave: existence, paintings, and dying on the Lake more advantageous Copper Mines (OUP 1991), Lankton the following makes a speciality of the folk of this sector and the way the copper mining affected their day-by-day lives.A actually satisfactory social historical past, past the limits will entice historians of the frontier and of Michigan and the good Lakes zone, in addition to historians of expertise, hard work, and daily life.
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Extra info for Beyond the Boundaries: Life and Landscape at the Lake Superior Copper Mines, 1840-1875
When she was fourteen years old she came over to the Copper Country. . " —"There was no street cars or railroads yet. " —"When they came to Houghton, West Houghton was not only a bush. There were many large trees. "24 The forests were lovely, but like Lake Superior, they had their darker side. They burdened workers who had to peel back a tangled forest floor to try to expose the upturned edge of a copper-bearing lode. In particular, dense woods, thick underbrush, and occasional swamps thwarted overland transportation and challenged the region's early road builders, who struggled to connect mine to mine, or coastal village to hinterland settlement.
Whittlesey estimated that ten thousand went up to Lake Superior that season (and nearly all returned south again, before winter). Because there were "no steamboats & and but few sailing vessels . . , a large portion arrived by canoes, skiffs & Mackinaw boats from the Sault Ste. "7 Because much of that shore was uncharted and unlighted, and because Lake Superior could storm suddenly and violently, waterborne travelers were advised to secure the services of voyageurs. Voyageurs, who first learned their skills in the fur trading business, played key roles in the Keweenaw mine rush of the 18405 and remained important through the 18505.
Only rarely did Lake Superior freeze over solid, but Superior's ice, plus the ice in lakes Huron, Michigan, and St. Clair and in the St. Mary's and Detroit rivers, 16 B E Y O N D THE BOUNDARIES brought water travel to and from the copper district to a total halt. Each year the Keweenaw's population was frozen out and separated from the world below for months at a time. So winter had a tremendous effect on everyday life in the copper district. It not only altered routines; it got into people's heads and drove their emotions.