By Daniel Cohen
During this e-book, Daniel Cohen explores the connections among arguments and metaphors so much suggested in philosophy, simply because philosophical discourse is either completely metaphorical and replete with argumentation. The metaphors we use for arguments, in addition to the methods we use metaphors as arguments and in arguments, presents the foundation for a tripartite theoretical framework for figuring out and comparing arguments. There are logical, rhetorical, and dialectical dimensions to arguments, each one supplying norms for behavior, vocabulary for overview, and standards for fulfillment. In flip, the pointed out roles for arguments mostly discourse will be utilized to metaphors, supporting to give an explanation for what they suggest and the way they paintings. Cohen covers the character of arguments, their modes and buildings, and the rules in their assessment. He additionally addresses the character of metaphors, their position in language and inspiration, and their connections to arguments, choosing and reconciling arguments' and metaphors' respective roles in philosophy.
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Extra info for Arguments and Metaphors in Philosophy
For relevant discussions see Kosman 1986, A. Rorty 1986, Lloyd 1993, and Gordon unpublished. For example, the whole series of arguments for skepticism in the Meditations, culminating in the Evil Demon, is a sustained dialogic engagement with skeptics. To Philosophize is to Argue 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 33 The distinction between Truth and truths is drawn in the introductory essay in Rorty 1982, and returned to frequently. Gilbert 1997 p. 13. This issue is returned to in the final chapter.
We routinely speak, for example, of strong, or even killer, arguments and powerful counterattacks, of defensible positions and winning strategies, and of weak arguments that are easily shot down while strong ones carry a lot of firepower and are right on target. Since success can be achieved in many ways, ready arguers should have a well stocked arsenal at their disposal, one whose weapons include the brute force of reason, the carefully constructed ambush, the verbal jujitsu of Socratic elenchus, the enaging analogy, the deadly barbs of satire, or perhaps even the bombshell of a surprise revelation!
The point is that whether the operative notion of argument is as proof-Ieading-to-truth or as language-game-Ieading-to-agreement, arguments are being conceived as having an essentially adversarial structure. The true beliefs that an argunlent's losers have been given, are coerced beliefs; and, alternatively, the agreement to which they are now party, is an imposed agreement. " This is the sort of consideration that, carried to its extremes, has led one feminist critic to say that any intent to persuade is an act of violence,s an attitude that effectively puts an end to all rational discourse and any possible exchange of ideas.