By Herbert C. Huser, National Defense University. Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies
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Additional info for Argentine civil-military relations: from Alfonsín to Menem
Argentina had as antecedent a negative or immature political culture inconsistent with a democratic republican life. Authorities had a paternalistic disposition to impose or oblige political conduct. 87 Era One: 1810–1870 Argentine political history before 1983 is divisible into 3 eras, each approximately 60 years in length. The first era, from the declaration of separation from Spain in 1810 to the end of the War of the Triple Alliance in 1870, was one characterized by intermittent civil war, a period in which Argentina’s national identity, let alone its sense of political community, was unclear.
As Minister of Labor in the Edelmiro Farrell government (1944–1945), he created a militaristic, personalist movement that became a contestant for the mantle of legitimacy. Mobilizing urban organized labor beyond the confines of party politics or military machinations, Perón bested both the military authorities (who briefly imprisoned him on the island of Martín García in the River Plate) and the Radicals (who sought to beat him in the 1946 electoral contest), and rode a wave of populism to overwhelming victory in an open, if highly charged, contest.
83 Each current is, in important ways, beholden to that legacy, but each responds as well to exogenous influences in the course of Argentina’s history as a nation. The constitutionalist, nationalist militarist, and authoritarian populist currents provide alternative bases for the assertion of legitimacy of political authority. ) These currents offer differing notions about the appropriate underlying assumptions and rules that govern behavior in the political system; Hispanic Colonial Legacy to Political Culture: Paternalistic, Hierarchical, Authoritarian, Catholic, Corporate, Personalist, Elitist Caudillos Authoritarian Populist Early Triumvirates Military Heroes IDEOLOGY FORCE LAW Constitutionalist Tucumán Declaration1816 Constitution of 1853 Nationalist/ Militarist Basis for Claim to Legitimacy Current and Early Historical Examples Figure 1.