By D M Brink; G R Satchler
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Extra resources for Angular momentum
7M ~"f +Vs 11 'c"=' : p 1 C If----o DISCR -:$:- Fig. 14. 003]' As in the proportional counter, the signal pulse in the GM counter is formed by the ion component. Due to the final propagation velocity Vz of the ion hose along the anode wire, the current pulse consists of an overlap of delayed partial currents of the individual avalanches which have the shape lionel) for cylindrical chambers (Fig. 02). 18) 22 Detection Mechanism and Pulse Shape in the OM Counter T/ is the propagation time needed to spread the ion hose over the whole length I of the counter.
47) is integrated in aRe network at the output of the photomultiplier (Fig. 38) in order to obtain a voltage pulse with amplitude proportional to LJE. 45). ) :::; 101 10° 0 TlME(nsec) Fig. 41. 228] must be realized. In the case of t p being negligible (i. e. 46) becomes a b-function, Ia(t) remains pure exponential and the output voltage VOU\(t) in Fig. 42). In Fig. 163]. Obviously ,> 'n, or better ,> 10"n, must be chosen so as to avoid a pulse height loss and a reduction in the number of photocathode electrons contributing to the signal.
045]). Even greater delays of more than IOIlS have been reported, which are caused by traces of electronegative gases in the counter filling. Such a molecule may capture the free electron and delay it substantially due to its much lower mobility. 048]). In the proportional counter the origin of the positive ions can be presumed to be in the nearest proximity of the anode wire (i. e. Xo = a), so that the electron component of the current can be neglected. In a GM counter the high charge density affects the field surrounding the wire so that the ion hose has a finite diameter which, though very small, is still substantially greater than the wire diameter (i.