By Karolin K. Kroening
This ebook describes nerve brokers and vesicants, their decomposition and their degradation items' chemistry in addition to their toxicity together with a listing of detection ideas of nerve brokers and their degradation items. This booklet will current their background, toxicity, comparability among varied pattern guidance tools, separation options, and detection equipment all jointly in a brief, effortless to learn booklet, tied jointly via a unmarried team doing the writing and the modifying to guarantee soft transition from bankruptcy to bankruptcy, with enough Tables and literature references for the reader who appears to be like to additional detail.The textual content will illustrate the pluses and minuses of many of the thoughts with enough references for the reader to procure huge aspect.
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Extra info for Analysis of Chemical Warfare Degradation Products
2 Exposure Organophosphorus nerve agents are liquids at room temperature . This chemical property is often confusing, as these compounds are often referred to as ‘nerve gases’ or ‘poison gases’ [2, 3, 8]. A source of this misperception is associated with the likely exposure route in a warfare setting, inhalation due to aerosol exposure . Inhalation is the most toxic form of exposure. Symptoms, including death, can appear within minutes following inhalation . Alternative exposure routes, typically from liquid contact, include dermal, ocular and ingestion; however, these mechanisms are not as acute as aerosol inhalation, with the exception of an immediate ocular response to nerve agent vapor [4, 10].
222, 191–203. L. et al. (1986) Environ. , 8, 4. , Sugiyama, A. et al. (1995) Mutat. , 343, 157–183. , Autian, J. (1979) Toxicol. Appl. , 50, 451–458. -Z. (1986) Toxicol. , 31, 80. , Darre, E. (1984) Contact Dermatitis, 11, 26–28. , Benhayem, S. et al. (1976) Environ. , 11, 66–77. E. et al. (1988) Toxicology, 52, 237–252. , Husain, I. et al. (1989) Ind. Health, 27, 121–124. C. (1989) Rev. Environ. Contam. , 110, 75–115. N. (1989) Review of Reactions of Chemical Agents in Water, Defense Technical Information Center, Alexandria, VA.
In humans, severe burns can occur in the eye and on the skin with strong irritations to the olfactory system, similar to that of ammonia. Triethyl phosphate is also considered to be acutely toxic, with only moderate irritating properties. Chronic exposures to dimethylamine and triethyl phosphate have also been tabulated by Munro et al. 3 . Dimethylamine does not appear to be mutagenic or carcinogenic; however, triethyl phosphate has been well characterized . Triethyl phosphate does seem to cause mutagenesis and affect the reproductive system .