New PDF release: An introduction to radiation protection

New PDF release: An introduction to radiation protection

By Alan D Martin; Samuel A Harbison

An advent to Radiation defense is an available account of the character of the risks provided through ionizing radiation and the equipment of safeguard, for these new to the sphere and for the non-specialist.
This e-book takes the reader throughout the common heritage to the topic, the technical rules underlying the keep an eye on of radiation dangers, the organic results of radiation, and radiation detection and size. those are via a attention of extra really good subject matters together with radiation defense in drugs and within the nuclear strength undefined, radioactive waste administration and radiological emergencies

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Since the electron has a negative charge, the atom is consequently left positively charged. The atom and the electron, so separated, are known as an ion pair, that is, a positive ion (the atom minus one electron) and a negative ion (the electron). The absorption of radiation in a medium results, then, in the production of ion pairs in the medium. A small amount of energy is required to cause ionization, so that in producing ion pairs, the particles or photons of radiation lose energy to the medium.

1 INTRODUCTION Throughout history man has been exposed to radiation from the environment. This natural background radiation comes from three main sources: cosmic radiation, radiation from terrestrial sources and radioactivity in the body. It is impossible to decide whether the natural background radiation has been harmful or beneficial to the development of the human species. It was pointed out in the previous chapter that a very small, but finite, fraction of the natural mutations in cells must be beneficial since they have contributed to the evolution of higher forms of life.

The levels of exposure of workers and members of the public arising from normal operations in the nuclear energy industry, or from industrial and medical applications of radiation, are far below the levels that would induce early effects. Such high doses could only be received in the unlikely event of an accident. However, the low doses received in normal operations may cause harmful effects in the long term and these are discussed below. It will have been noted that in this discussion, early effects have been considered in terms of the absorbed dose, expressed in gray (Gy), rather than as equivalent dose in sievert (Sv).

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