As a result of the fast elevate within the variety of cellular gadget clients around the world, location-based providers (LBSs) became pervasive, and the call for for them will keep growing. Exploring fresh adjustments within the know-how and its makes use of, complex Location-Based applied sciences and companies takes an in-depth examine new and present applied sciences, strategies, purposes, and possibilities. less than the editorial suggestions of Hassan Karimi, with contributions from specialists within the box, the e-book examines the breadth and intensity of complex LBS applied sciences and techniques.
The e-book offers up to date info on LBSs, together with WiFi fingerprinting, geo-crowdsouring, and placement privateness in addition to software parts similar to LBSs for public wellbeing and fitness, indoor navigation, pedestrian navigation, and advertisements. Highlights contain discussions of Location-Based Social Networking (LBSN) and the newest advancements in geospatial clouds and the way they are often used. It takes a glance into the longer term with assurance of rising applied sciences that would form the longer term new release of LBSs.
Carefully designed to hide a number of subject matters for readers at assorted degrees and with diverse backgrounds, the publication offers a stability of information among LBS theories, applied sciences, and purposes. The quality of the contributions coupled with the intensity of insurance make the publication a vital source for an individual exploring the opportunity of the most recent advancements in LBSs.
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Extra resources for Advanced Location-Based Technologies and Services
7, based on a combination of a handset-based GPS method with a network-based CGI-TA to cover GPS losses of lock, should offer a solution more reliable to the one offered by each technique alone. Other hybrid solutions are, for example, AOA plus TDOA, called enhanced forward link triangulation (E-FLT), also called enhanced forward link time difference; E-OTD plus A-GPS; and AOA plus RSS. 6 Cellular Network-Based Techniques Supporting LBS LBS Technique GPS, A-GPS E-OTD CGI-TA TOA TDOA AOA RSS Location/multipath pattern matching Hybrid system such as A-GPS + CGI a Primary Observable • Time (range) to multiple satellites • 3D location • Minimum of 3 ranges required for 2D positioning • Signal travel time difference between the user and the base stations • 2D location • Cell ID • The accuracy does not meet the E-911a requirements • 2D location • Signal travel time between the user and the base stations • 2D location • Signal travel time difference between the user and the base stations • 2D location • Time (range) to multiple cell towers (minimum of three measurements is required) • 2D location • Received signal strength • 2D location • Multipath signature at the users location • 2D location • GPS range • Cell ID • 3D or 2D Upgrade of the User Terminal or Network Location Calculation and Control • User terminal (GPS receiver, memory, software) • Nonsynchronized networks may require an enhancement • User terminal (memory, software) • Base station time synchronization • None Mobile terminal • Supports legacy terminals • Monitoring equipment at every base station Network • Network interconnection Network • Network interconnection • Antenna arrays to measure angles Network • None Network • None Network • Same as for GPS method Mobile terminal plus Network Mobile terminal Network E-911 (Enhanced 911) services.
3 ALTERNATIVES TO GNSS The traditional drivers underpinning the development of alternative or augmentation systems for positioning have arisen from the need to provide GNSS-like or enhanced GNSS performance in environments that completely or partially obscure GNSS signals. For example, in the civil aviation industry, GNSS receivers are augmented with the inertial navigation sensors to support aviation integrity requirements. Over the past decade, unprecedented growth in consumer LBS has generated new requirements for positioning in indoor and urban environments.
SnapTrack, 2002). These measurements can be used to determine the distance from the user to the base, further reducing the position error (SnapTrack, 2002). TOA is based on the travel time information (equivalent to a range) between the base station and the mobile terminal. 12). The actual observation is the signal travel time, tUr − t Bt , which is converted to a distance by multiplying it by the speed of light, where tUr and t Bt denote the time of signal arrival at the user (U) and the time of signal transmission at the base (B), respectively.