By Marilyn D. Rhinehart
The coal mine represented even more than a fashion of constructing a residing to the miners of Thurber, Texas, within the overdue 19th and early 20th centuries-it represented a life-style. Coal mining ruled Thurber's paintings existence, and miners ruled its social existence. the big immigrant inhabitants that crammed the mines in Thurber represented greater than a dozen international locations, which lent a forte to this Texas city. In 1888 Robert D. Hunter and the Texas & Pacific Coal corporation based Thurber at the website of Johnson Mines, a small coal-mining village at the western fringe of North imperative Texas the place Palo Pinto, Erath, and Eastland counties converged. for nearly 40 years the corporate mined coal and owned and operated a city that through 1910 served as domestic to greater than 3 thousand citizens. Marilyn Rhinehart examines the tradition of the miners' paintings, the demographics and social lifetime of the neighborhood, and the advantages and constraints of lifestyles in an organization city.
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Extra resources for A Way of Work and a Way of Life: Coal Mining in Thurber, Texas, 1888-1926 (Texas A&M Southwestern Studies)
Neither represented the "new" immigration. 29 Country Table 2 Occupations by Ethnicity and Race, Thurber, Texas, 1900Foreign Born in OccupationBlacks in OccupationOccupationNumber% of TotalNumber% of TotalCoal miner (see table 1 for nationalities)5446610713Saloonkeeper36000Italian (2)Scots (1)Seamstress15000Scots (1)Cook26600Italian (1)Chinese (1)Preacher250125Italian (1)Dutch (1)Boardinghouse keeper327545Scots (1)Mexican (1)Irish (1) (Table continued on next page) Page 15 Table 2continued Foreign Born in Occupation Blacks in OccupationOccupationNumber% of TotalNumber% of TotalSalesman1700German (1)Carpenter41900German (1)Irish (1)Polish (1)English (1)Blacksmith32700Scots (2)Polish (1)Day laborer2525English (1)French (1)Launderer266134Chinese (2)Lawman12500Irish (1)Servant120240German (1)Waiter210000Chinese (2)Hotel proprietor210000Chinese (2)Brick plant worker2424English (1)German (1)Manager11700Canadian (1)Railroad worker11700English (1)Teacher12000German (1)Barber110000Italian (1)Machinist11700Scots (1)Meat cutter12500German (1)Justice of the peace110000Russian (1)Teamster00320SOURCES: Twelfth Census, 1900, MS; computer analysis of data base for Thurber, Texas, 1900.
28 Coal mining and ethnic diversity went hand in hand in the coal town, for the foreign born dominated no other major enterprise as they did coal digging. The second-largest industry in Thurber, the brickmaking plant, which opened in 1894, employed fifty-four workers in 1900, only two of whom were foreign born, one, English, the other, German. Only one salesman and one manager employed by the Texas & Pacific Coal Company in Thurber listed themselves in the 1900 census as foreign born. Neither represented the "new" immigration.
Coal mining literally fueled America's industrial trans-formation. In Texas as elsewhere coal production did represent potential, because it made other industrial growth possible. Thus, a study of a coal town provides a special vantage point from which to view the industrialization process and its far-reaching effects on a society and those who lived in it. Entrepreneurs in Texas early appreciated the significance of coal deposits to the state's, the region's, and the investor's economic future.